Online Mercury removal

Applying the Power of Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy

PS Analytical

PS Analytical specialise in a range of instrumentation and application specific accessories to facilitate the analysis of Mercury and other Hydride Forming Elements (such as Arsenic, Selenium, Antimony, Bismuth and Tellurium) by the highly sensitive Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (AFS) technique, for both Laboratory and On-Line applications. Mercury Waste Water

PSA offer analytical solutions covering many application areas including Environmental (Water, Waste Water, Soils, Sediments, Gaseous Emissions, Speciation (e.g. Methyl Mercury, Inorganic/Organic Arsenic)), Biological, Agricultural, Foods, Minerals and Mining, Petrochemical (Oil and Gas) and Industrial.

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Ian Finch - Mercury Waste Water


Mercury Analysis (Aqueous & Non-Volatile Liquids, Digested Solids)

Mercury Waste Water
PSA Millennium Merlin
The Millennium Merlin system is the platform to target for the laboratory analysis of Mercury in Environmental Applications (such as Water, Waste Water, Digested Solids – Soils & Sediments, Gaseous Emissions, Speciation of Methyl Mercury/Inorganic Mercury etc), Biological Applications (eg Mercury in Hair, Tissue, Blood, Urine etc), Agricultural, Foods, Minerals, Mining, Industrial and Petrochemical (non-volatile organic liquids).
There are 3 different versions of the Merlin available, along with various accessories to expand the capability of the Millennium Merlin system. The appropriate choice of version will depend on the application and sensitivity required. The different versions are outlined below.
PSA 10.025 Millennium Merlin
The PSA 10.025 is the standard configuration of the Merlin, and features Hydride Vapour Generation, coupled with Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS) Detection specific for Mercury.
This instrument combines the advantages of Hydride Vapour Generation (which removes most chemical interferences), with the highly sensitive and selective Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS) detection technique, facilitating Mercury analysis down to sub ppt detection limits, capable of 7 orders of magnitude linearity with minimal carryover. The Merlin also incorporates a Perma Pure dryer system which improves precision and negates the need for regular changing of a chemical desiccant. The instrument is fully software controlled, and with the addition of an autosampler, can be configured for unattended operation (refer to the Millennium Merlin Accessories section for a list of available options).
PSA 10.035 Millennium Merlin 1631 System
The PSA 10.035 is known as the “1631 Version” of the Merlin, and has been configured to facilitate even lower detection limits for Mercury than the PSA 10.025 described above, and especially for compliance with the EPA 1631 method for drinking water, and any other application where lower detection limits are required (ie detection limits below 0.1ppt are possible). Compared to the 10.025 Millennium Merlin, the 10.035 Millennium Merlin 1631 has the same Hydride Vapour Generation system and AFS detector etc, but with the addition of an amalgamation system for a ten-fold reduction in detection limits. The 10.035 Merlin can be operated with the amalgamation circuit switched on (ie. in “1631” mode), or without (and therefore operates the same as the 10.025 Merlin).
The 10.035 Millennium Merlin 1631 is designed to be fully compliant with the following methods: EPA 1631, EPA 245.7, EPA 7474 and BS ISO 17852 (formerly EN13506) offering excellent results, sensitivity and reproducibility.
PSA 10.045 Millennium Merlin Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption (AAS) System
The PSA 10.045 is based on the older Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy technique, but is still sufficiently sensitive for some standard methods and applications that specify the use of Cold Vapour methods coupled with Atomic Absorption determination. The 10.045 Merlin is based on the classical Cold Vapour – AAS technique and utilises a similar Hydride Vapour Generation system as the 10.025 Merlin, but with an AAS detection system (rather than AFS), and can still measure trace to ultra-trace concentrations of Mercury.
The 10.045 Millennium Merlin Cold Vapour AAS System is designed to be fully compliant with the following methods: EPA 245.1, EPA 245.2, EPA 7470 and EPA 7471.


Accessories for Millennium Merlin

Mercury Waste Water
PSA 20.400 Autosampler

The PSA 20.400 Autosampler is a random access XYZ style autosampler which is supported by the Millennium instrument software. The PSA 20.400 holds 12 standard cups (29mm diameter) plus 3 sample racks. There are a number of sample rack configurations available to suit various vial sizes to cover 75 to 192 sample positions (including standards). There is also an accessory cover, and independent wash pot pump available if required.

PSA A400D170 Autodilutor

The PSA A400D170 Autodilutor is a high resolution computer controlled syringe drive (with valve) for dispensing and diluting functions. It operates in conjunction with the PSA 20.400 Autosampler, and can be used to prepare working standards, as well as automated dilution of samples in single or multiple dilution steps with automatic rinsing.

PSA M035S100 Scarifier

The PSA M035S100 Scarifier device extends the capability of the 10.035 Millennium Merlin 1631 version for the analysis of Mercury in gaseous samples. Samples such as air, flue/stack gas and natural gas are collected by amalgamation onto Amasil traps (Gold Coated Silica), which are then placed into the Scarifier device where the Mercury is then desorbed and quantitatively transferred to the 10.035 Millennium Merlin 1631 for analysis.

PSA M035K003 Solid Sampler Accessory

The PSA M035K003 Solid Sampler Kit is used for the treatment of solids (such as contaminated soils) for the determination of Elemental Mercury. A representative soil sample is weighed into a sample tube, which is then purged with Argon for a fixed time, and any Elemental Mercury present is removed by this Argon stream and collected by amalgamation onto Amasil traps (Gold Coated Silica). The Amasil trap is then transferred to the M035S100 Scarifier device where any Elemental Mercury present will be desorbed and quantitatively transferred to the 10.035 Millennium Merlin 1631 for analysis. The M035K003 Solid Sampler Accessory can purge 6 traps simultaneously and a spiking port has been incorporated into the 1st sampling position to facilitate spike recovery determination. The system is suitable for any solid environmental samples for Elemental Mercury analysis.

PSA 10.820 Modular Interface (M)

The PSA 10.820 Modular Interface is a configurable device which extends the range of applications to any Millennium Merlin or Excalibur instrument for the purpose of speciation analysis to determine the relevant inorganic and organic forms of the target element/s of interest (eg Hg(II), Methyl Mercury, Ethyl Mercury etc). The MI can be configured with all or a combination of HPLC pump, injection valve, UV cracker, heating and cooling modules. This simple interface generates compatible flow rates, while offering online digestion (heat and UV), as well as a variety of post column reactions to facilitate speciation studies. The MI coupled with either the Millennium Merlin or Excalibur provides the ultimate detection performance for both sensitivity and selectivity.


Mercury Analysis (Gases & Volatile Liquids) – Sir Galahad II

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Accessories for Sir Galahad II

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Other Hydride Metals (As, Se, Sb, Bi & Te) – Millennium Excalibur

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Accessories for Millennium Excalibur

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Mercury Analysis

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Other Hydride Metals (As, Se, Sb, Bi & Te)

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Application notes from PS Analytical

APP001 | Determination of Mercury in Milk Powder
APP002 | Determination of Mercury in Oyster Tissue
APP003 | Determination of Mercury in Human Hair
APP004 | Total Mercury Determinations in Industrial and Domestic Waste Waters
APP005 | Sampling Method for Concentrating Mercury in Natural Gas
APP006 | Rapid Method for Determining Mercury in Urine
APP007 | Determination of Mercury in Urine using Microwave Dissolution
APP008 | Total Mercury Determinations in Drinking, Surface, Ground and Saline Waters
APP009 | Comparison Data For Sir Galahad and Potassium Permanganate Absorption
APP010 | Determination of Mercury in Stabilised Condensate
APP011 | Determination of Selenium in Blood by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HG-AAS)
APP012 | Arsenic Determinations in Soil, Sediment & Sludge Samples
APP013 Mercury Determinations in Soil, Sediment & Sludge Samples
APP014 | Antimony Determinations in Soil, Sediment & Sludge Samples
APP015 | Selenium Determinations in Soil, Sediment & Sludge Samples
APP016 | Selenium Determination in Fresh, Estuarine & Nearshore Water Samples
APP017 | Arsenic Determinations in Fresh, Estuarine & Nearshore Water Samples
APP018 | Determination of Methylmercury in Mussel Homogenate
APP019 | Determination of Total Mercury in Mussel Homogenate
APP020 | Determination of Arsenic in Naphtha by Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP021 | Determination of Selenium in Whole Blood & Serum
APP022 | The Determination of Mercury in Whole Blood
APP023 | Determination of Total Mercury in Industrial Effluent
APP024 | Arsenic Speciation by Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HGAFS)
APP025 | Determination of Mercury in Contaminated Soil
APP026 | Determination of Arsenic in Contaminated Soil
APP027 | Determination of Selenium in Contaminated Soil
APP028 | Determination of Mercury in Liquid Hydrocarbons/Condensates
APP029 | Determination of Mercury in Aluminium Samples
APP030 | Determination of Antimony in Potable Waters
APP031 | The use of the PSA Millennium Merlin for the Determination of Mercury in a Polluted Marine Sediment
APP032 | Determination of Mercury in Standard Reference Material NBS3133
APP033 | Determination of Mercury in Zinc Concentrates
APP034 | Determination of Methylmercury in Marine Liver Tissue by Gas Chromatography Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (GC-AFS)
APP035 | Determination of Methylmercury in Fucus Sea Plant by Gas Chromatography Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (GC-AFS)
APP036 | Determination of Mercury in Tea Samples using Continuous Flow Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
APP037 | Mercury Speciation in Liquid Hydrocarbons using Gas Chromatography Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (GC-AFS)
APP038 | The Determination of Antimony, Arsenic and Selenium in Lead Concentrates using Continuous Flow Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
APP039 | Determination of Mercury in Poplar Leaves using Continuous Flow Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
APP040 | Determination of Selenium in Human Hair using Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
APP041 | Determination of Arsenic in Human Hair using Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
APP042 | Determination of Mercury in Paper using Continuous Flow Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
APP043 | Determination of Arsenic, Antimony and Selenium in Zinc Concentrates by Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP044 | Determination of Arsenic in Poplar Leaves using Continuous Flow Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP045 | Determination of Antimony in Human Bone
APP046 | Determination of Mercury in Incineration Ash
APP047 | Determination of Mercury in Sewage Flue Gas
APP048 | Determination of Selenium in Grass using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (GC-AFS)
APP049 | Determination of Arsenic in Oyster Tissue using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (GC-AFS)
APP050 | Determination of Selenium in Oyster Tissue using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP051 | Determination of Selenium in Children’s Nutritional Supplements using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP052 | Determination of Selenium in Milk using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP053 | Mercury Speciation using the Millennium Merlin Speciation System
APP054 | Interference of Copper on the Determination of Selenium using Hydride Generation – Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP055 | Antimony Speciation using the Millennium Excalibur Speciation System
APP056 | Determination of Mercury in Sodium Hypochlorite Solution using Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (CV-AFS)
APP057 | UV Oxidation for the On-line Treatment of Mercury Prior to Determination by Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
APP058 | Determination of Mercury in Coal using Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry(CV-AFS)
APP059 | On-Line Reduction of SeVI to SeIV Prior to Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Determination of Selenium (HG-AFS)
APP060 | Determination of Mercury in Natural Gas
APP061 | On-Line Mercury Determination in Wastewater from an Incineration Plant
APP062 | Determination of Arsenic in Aluminium Samples
APP063 | Determination of Antimony in Aluminium Samples
APP064 | Determination of Bismuth in Hair using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP065 | Determination of Antimony in Human Hair using Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
APP066 | Fully Automated Determination of Mercury in Air using Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
APP067 | Determination of Mercury in Hydrogen using Amalgamation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
APP068 | Determination of Mercury using Continuous Flow Vapour Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS)
APP069 | Determination of Mercury in Fly Ash
APP070 | Determination of Selenium in Wheat Flour using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP071 | Determination of Selenium in Bovine Liver using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP072 | Determination of Total Mercury in Crude Oil & Condensate Feedstocks by Cold Vapour Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (CV-AFS)
APP073 | The use of Cold Vapour Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (CV-AFS) for the Ontario Hydro Method (ASTM D6784-02)
APP074 | Determination of Arsenic in Coal using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP075 | Determination of Selenium in Coal using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP076 | Determination of Selenium in Cod Muscle using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP077 | Determination of Mercury in Sulfur using Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
APP078 | Determination of Arsenic in Naphtha Samples
APP079 | Determination of Mercury in Naphtha using the Millennium Merlin
APP080 | Determination of Antimony and Mercury in False Nail Adhesive
APP081 | Determination of Mercury in Produced Water
APP082 | Determination of Mercury in Gases Containing High Levels of H2S using dual Amalgamation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
APP083 | Determination of Total Mercury in a Condensate Sample using the Merlin and the Pre- Concentration Unit
APP084 | Determination of Trace Amount of Mercury in Brine and Water Samples using Cold Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (CV-AFS)
APP085 | Complying the Quality Assurance Program of EPA Method 1631 and its Application to the Determination of ultra-trace Mercury in Rainwater Samples
APP086 | Complying the Quality Assurance Program of EPA Method 1631 and its Application to the Determination of ultra-trace Mercury in Water Samples
APP087 | Determination of Total Mercury in Mixed LPG using ISO-6978 and ASTM 6850
APP088 | Methylmercury Determination in Human Hair using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Post Column UV Digestion Coupled with Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HPLC-UV-CV-AFS)
APP089 | Antimony Speciation in Soils using The Millennium Excalibur
APP090 | Determination of Mercury in Poplar Leaves using Continuous Flow Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry using Hot Plate Digestion (AFS)
APP091 | Speciation of Four Toxicologically Relevant Arsenic Species in Water Samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS)
APP092 | Using The Millennium Excalibur for Selenium Speciation
APP093 | Determination of Selenium in Dogfish Muscle and Lobster Heatopacreas using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP094 | Mercury Speciation in Solid Samples by Thermal Decomposition Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
APP095 | Determination of Total Mercury in Waste Lubricant Oil by Cold Vapour Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (CV-AFS)
APP096 | Determination of Mercury in Water Samples using Automated UV Digestion with Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (UV-CV-AFS)
APP097 | Determination of Total Selenium in Drinking Water Samples with Online Pre-reductions Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP098 | Bromination Method for Mercury in Urine
APP099 | Speciation of Inorganic Arsenic in Food by Hydride Generation Anion Exchange Liquid Chromatography Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry with Online Ultraviolet (UV) Digestion (HPLC-HG-AFS)
APP100 | Determination of Total Mercury in Vegetable by Cold Vapour Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (CV-AFS)
APP101 | Determination of Total Mercury in Fish by Cold Vapour Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (CV-AFS)
APP102 | Continuous Determination of Mercury in Waste and Process Water Using the PSA 10.225 Online Mercury Liquid System
APP103 | Determination of Selenium in Glass using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP104 | Total Arsenic Analysis on Swabs
APP105 | Rapid Arsenic Speciation Analysis in Water Samples using Flow Injection Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry with a Low Pressure Short Column (AFS)
APP106 | Determination of Total Mercury in Glycol by Cold Vapour Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (CV-AFS)
APP107 | Determination of Mercury Fractions in Caustic Wash Samples
APP108 | Determination of Mercury in Caustic Soda By (CV-AFS)
APP109 | Determination of Mercury in Mining Waste Containing High Levels of Cyanide
APP110 | Determination of Arsenic in Hair using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry After Open Vessel Digestion on a Hot Block (HG-AFS)
APP111 | Determination of Total Mercury in Urine After Nitric Acid Digestion
APP112 | Determination of Arsenic in Etidronic Acid (HEDP) by Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP113 | Arsenic Speciation in Rice by Hydride Generation Anion Exchange Liquid Chromatography Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS)
APP114 | Determination of total Mercury in Phenol using the PSA 10.515 Pre-Concentration Unit
APP115 | Determination of Mercury in Ethane using Amalgamation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS)
APP116 | Determination of Total Arsenic in Whole Blood
APP117 | Determination of Total Mercury in Pressurized Liquid Hydrocarbon Samples Collected in Sample Bombs
APP118 | Selenium Speciation in Yeast by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HPLC-UV-HG-AFS)
APP119 | Determination of Total Mercury in Seaweed by Cold Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (CV-AFS)
APP120 | Total Arsenic Analysis in Animal Feed by Online Uv Oxidation Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (UV-HG-AFS)
APP121 | Determination of Total Mercury in Animal Feed by Cold Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (CV-AFS)
APP122 | Determination of Total Mercury in Natural Water using Single Amalgamation Cold Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (CV-AFS)
APP123 | Determination of Total Mercury in Hair by (CV-AFS)
APP124 | Determination of Arsenic in Polypropylene
APP125 | Determination of Total Mercury on Iodated Activated Carbon by Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (EPA Method 30B)
APP126 | Determination of Total Mercury in FGD Wastewater using Cold Vapour Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (CV-AFS)
APP127 | Determination of Inorganic Arsenic in Rice by Selective Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP128 | Determination of Total Arsenic in FGD Wastewater by Online UV Oxidation Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (UV-HG-AFS)
APP129 | Determination of Total Selenium In FGD Wastewater by Online UV Oxidation Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (UV-HG-AFS)
APP130 | Determination of Mercury in Spent Adsorbents for the Petrochemical Industry
APP131 | Determination of Mercury in Sulphuric Acid using CV-AFS
APP132 | Determination of Total Arsenic in Phosphoric Acid by Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS) With and Without Online UV Digestion
APP133 | Determination of Selenium in Sulphuric Acid using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP134 | Determination of Mercury in Propylene
APP135 | Determination of Airborne Mercury for Occupational Exposure Within the Oil and Gas Industry using Hydrar Sampling Tubes with CV-AFS
APP136 | Online Determination of Mercury in FGD Wastewater
APP137 | Determination of Total Arsenic in Wastewater from an Oil and Gas Refinery by Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP138 | Online Determination of Arsenic in Drinking Water
APP139 | Online Determination of Arsenic in FGD Wastewater
APP140 | Online Determination of Arsenic in Wastewater From an Oil and Gas Refinery
APP141 | Using the PSA Millennium Excalibur System for the Speciation of Arsenic and Selenium Metabolites in Human Urine
APP142 | Online Determination of Selenium in FGD Wastewater
APP143 | Mercury speciation in spent sorbent (total and elemental mercury) using atomic fluorescence spectrometry
APP144 | Arsenic Speciation in Water Samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS) with Hydrogen addition to the Flame
APP145 | Determination of Total Arsenic in Nickel Refinery Smelting Processing Samples by Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)
APP146 | Arsenic Speciation in Water Samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS) using the 10.820-1000 Binary Gradient Pump
APP147 | Selenium Speciation in Wastewater by HPLC-HG-AFS
APP148 | Determination of As Hg Se on Sorbent Traps
APP149 | Determination of Selenium in Human Fingernails
APP150 | Determination of Arsenic in Human Fingernails using Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry after Open Vessel Digestion on a Hot Block
APP151 | Online Determination and Speciation of Antimony in Wastewater
APP152 | Phenylation of Methyl-and Ethylmercury in Water Samples, Liquid-Liquid-Extraction and Analysis via GC-AFS
APP153 | Propylation of Methyl-and Ethyl-mercury in Seawater using derivatisation with liquidliquid extraction and analysis via GC-AFS
APP154 | Analysis of Total Tellurium in Environmental Samples
APP155 | Determination of Elemental Hg in Soil Samples
APP156 | Determination of total hg in liquid hydrocarbon 20600 auto injector
APP157 | Determination of Mercury in water samples with modular interface (MI) vapour generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry
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